Read more Resuscitation is a monthly international and interdisciplinary medical journal. The papers published deal with the aetiology, pathophysiology and prevention of cardiac arrest, resuscitation training, clinical resuscitation, and experimental resuscitation research, although papers relating to animal studies will be published only if they are of exceptional interest and related directly to clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Papers relating to trauma are published occasionally but the majority of these concern traumatic cardiac arrest.
Received Sep 28; Accepted Jan 5.
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Abstract Cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR is an effective intervention for prehospital cardiac arrest. We conducted five focus groups with Chinese immigrants who self-reported limited English proficiency LEP.
A bilingual facilitator conducted all the sessions. All discussions were taped, recorded, translated, and transcribed.
Transcripts were analyzed by content analysis guided by the theory of diffusion. The majority of participants did not know of CPR and did not know where to get trained.
Introduction In the United States, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest continues to be an important public health problem. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPRin use for fifty years, is the most effective intervention for pre-hospital cardiac arrest [ 1 — 4 ].
It is estimated that one life is saved for every 24—36 persons who receive bystander CPR [ 26 ]. Public CPR training and instruction has been offered to the general public in different ways. Most notably are formal classes conducted by the American Heart Association and the Red Cross, fire departments, workplaces, schools, and dispatcher-assisted CPR delivered by operators at the time of the cardiac arrest.
Despite all of these available opportunities, the proportion of citizens trained to perform CPR is small and many are unfamiliar with bystander CPR [ 7 — 9 ]. Studies have shown that CPR training does not reach desirable target populations in large numbers [ 10 — 12 ]. Modification of CPR by eliminating mouth-to-mouth ventilation, which is often perceived to be difficult to perform and, for some, possibly embarrassing, may make CPR more accessible to the public and encourage more people to get trained.
However, surveillance data have also identified certain communities that have persistently low rates of bystander CPR [ 14 ].
Studies have demonstrated a racial difference in those receiving bystander CPR. In a study investigating racial differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, less bystander-initiated CPR may contribute to the difference in survival between black and white victims [ 1516 ]. Hispanics are less likely to receive bystander-initiated CPR than non-Hispanics [ 17 ].
The bystander CPR rate in Asians has not been reported. However, in a study to understand socioeconomic factors influencing bystander CPR, neighborhoods with increased percentages of Asian residents and linguistically isolated households were associated with lower rates of bystander CPR [ 19 ].
Most people trained in CPR are more likely to be from younger age groups, higher socioeconomic status, higher education levels, and speak English as a first language [ 1020 — 22 ]. People with limited skills in English have difficulty understanding written and verbal information and, therefore, are not often reached by English educational materials or media-based campaigns using video, Internet, or television [ 26 ].
We have not found any published studies investigating the diffusion and dissemination of CPR training in LEP communities.
Diffusion is the process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system [ 27 ].
According to Rogers, an innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual. The innovation-decision process is an information-seeking and information-processing activity in which an individual learns about the innovation and makes a decision to adopt or reject it.
As described by Rogers, it is sequential and occurs over time, consisting of a series of different actions Figure 1. Information exchange occurs in the five stages among members of the social system through different mass media, interpersonal communication networks, and interactive communication.
An individual evaluates the innovation based on the new information, shared attitudinal influences, and need for behavioral change.essential to understanding how trauma resuscitation evolved to the current era.
A complete history of trauma resuscitation is far beyond the scope of this article and has been covered well elsewhere.
1,2 Briefly, the modern understanding of resus-. Understanding Trauma Resuscitation: Experiences From the Field and Lessons Learned The resuscitation process is one of the most demanding in healthcare, study, which ranged from understanding teamwork, decision making, leadership, communication, and.
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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), in use for fifty years, participants demonstrated some understanding of the basic CPR concept.
For example, the majority identify when CPR is needed and that CPR can save lives. “If you guide me going through the process [CPR] which I have no idea, the first thing to do is that you must speak my.
In , the AHA began collaborating with other resuscitation councils throughout the world, via the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), in a formal international process to evaluate resuscitation science.
The IMIA Education Committee continues to set the standard for all things related to Medical Interpreter Education. The committee's highly selective, rigorous and multi-tiered CEU Application review process has been developed to ensure that only educational experiences of the highest caliber and most applicable relevancy earn the IMIA CEU credential.