The two characters, the American and the girl, discuss the topic indirectly, which corresponds with Hemingway's iceberg theory.
The talk was inspired by the many sculptured stone heads in the cathedral and she produced some most original ideas to explain who they were. As written records do not exist there is no definitive answer and whether correct or not her talk certainly produced the desire to visit the cathedral to view the heads.
The Anglo Saxons had originally built wooden churches with high roofs but later turned to using stone and some of these contained a stone stating which mason had built the church and when. The Normans did not do this and Thirlie thought the faces in Carlisle Cathedral depicted the masons and were their way of leaving a record of themselves.
Because they spoke French the masons and their families would have formed a tight social circle separate from the local people. Building a cathedral was a decades long affair and so families of masons and their descendants would stay for a long time in Carlisle.
On reaching the age of 14 a boy would be apprenticed to his father until he was 21 when he would go off to another mason to develop his skills but return when he was 28 to build part of the cathedral.
Bachelors were restricted to decorating their work with zigzag patterns and plain pillars but married men could decorate their work with leaves and berries. When they carved their faces a bachelor had to place his in the centre of the arch but a married man could put the image of himself and his wife at either end of the arch.
If a child died then the acorn was removed. Older masons depicted themselves with a protruding tongue to show that they were still alive and this may have been the origin of the Green Man so commonly found in churches and cathedrals.
If the mouth of the man or his wife was defaced then it was implied they had died. The oldest part of the cathedral is now the Border Regiment Chapel and starting with the faces there and then moving to the east end Thirlie attempted to place the faces in chronological order showing the family tree of the masons.
She also thought that the carver of the wooden misericords was the descendant of a mason due to the similarity in some designs. At the end of her talk she answered questions and was then thanked.
The subject of his talk was the War Memorial Village at Westfield. By the start of WW1 Thomas Mawson had established an international reputation as a garden designer.
His family firm based in Windermere had been responsible for many important local gardens such as those at Braithwaite Hall and Holker Hall. He was married with four sons and five daughters. His death had a profound effect on his father who determined to do something to help disabled soldiers and their families when the war finally ended.
He had a vision of setting up villages for them where they could live and work in specially constructed workshops. These villages would contain good quality housing with gardens at cheap rents, schools, hotels, shops, libraries, playing areas, churches and each would have its own power station as a national grid did not exist at that time.
In all 12 such villages of about inhabitants were planned to be spread throughout the country but at the end of the war the government did not financially support the scheme and there was some concern as to whether it was a good idea to effectively create ghettos of disabled soldiers.
However, in Lancaster a meeting was held in November and it was decided to collect subscriptions to found a village.
The two people who were the driving forces were Thomas Mawson and Herbert Storey, a local industrialist. The site chosen was the Westfield estate to the west of the railway station. This had belonged to Storey but he had moved out when Lancaster had started expanding near it.
Subscriptions were raised by a variety of methods including a lottery. The latter was the subject of a court case which decided the principle that a lottery for a charity was legal.
Ambitious plans were designed for the village and building commenced although it never was fully completed as planned.
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Also a factory was never built due to opposition from unions and firms. The official opening ceremony took place in November when a key was handed to Earl Haigh.
The central feature of the village was a war memorial designed by Miss Delahunt. After WW2 more houses were added but gradually things changed. The children of the original soldiers had left and the inhabitants were mainly elderly.Free undefined papers, essays, and research papers.
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