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Christianity an uncompromising form of the doctrine of predestination absolutism and absolutist state any political regime in which rulers are unrestrained by custom or the rule of law, and where the exercise of power can be arbitrary.
In reality no ruler possesses absolute power. The conventional view has been that absolute government was a feature of premodern, non-Western states, e. However, although arbitrary power and the social mobilization of subject populations e. Western European absolutism was absolutist only in comparison with the feudal monarchies that preceded it and the constitutional monarchies which followed.
The Marxist view is that Western European absolutism arose from a balance of power between a traditional landowning aristocracy and a rising bourgeoisie. This enabled monarchs to establish more effective central control, including codified laws, new and more effective standing armies and more efficient systems of taxation.
In practice, restraints on the centralization of political power remained, associated with the continued existence of independently powerful groups and the introduction of new constitutional rights. Debates exist in sociology as to how far absolutism in Europe was an integral element in the rise of Western capitalism, and whether it should be viewed as involving the recasting of feudal aristocratic power as for ANDERSONb or as the onset of modern bourgeois domination the more conventional Marxist view.
Absolutism also, absolute monarchy; the last form taken by the feudal state, appearing at the time of the disintegration of feudalism and the rise of capitalist relations. From the formal juridical point of view, absolutism is characterized by the fact that the head of state, the monarch, is regarded as the chief source of legislative and executive authority, the latter being implemented by the apparatus dependent upon him; the monarch levies taxes and disposes of the state finances.
Under absolutism the highest degree of state centralization under conditions of feudalism is attained; a highly ramified bureaucratic apparatus is created, with judicial, revenue-collecting, and other divisions, as well as a large standing army and police force.
The activity of bodies made up of representatives of the various estates, typical of estate monarchy, either ceases or loses its former importance. The nobility constitutes the social base of absolutism. At the same time, under absolutism the state acquires a certain independence of the dominant nobility by making use of the contradictions between that class and the rising bourgeoisie, who do not yet aspire to take power but who are economically strong enough to counterpose their interests to those of the feudal lords.
At a certain historical stage, absolutism played an essentially progressive role, combating the separatism of the feudal nobility, subordinating the church to the state, destroying the remnants of political fragmentation, and in this way objectively furthering the economic unity of the country, the successful development of new capitalist relations, and the formation of nations and nation-states.
Under absolute monarchy mercantilism was encouraged and trade wars were waged, directly or indirectly furthering the process of so-called primitive accumulation; during this period absolutism was supported by the rising bourgeoisie. However, absolutism worked to the advantage of the bourgeoisie only to the extent that it was in the interests of the nobility.
The nobles gained additional income from the successful economic development of the country, which could only be capitalist development at that stage, in the form of tax revenues centralized feudal rentwhich increased enormously under absolutism, and directly from the quickening of economic life.
The new economic resources were also utilized under absolutism to strengthen the military might of the feudal state with the aim of suppressing popular movements, which acquired great scope in this period, and of carrying out military expansion.
With various modifications all the characteristic features of absolutism found in the majority of European countries reached their fullest expression in France, where the first elements of absolutism appeared at the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries; it flourished primarily beginning in the time of Richelieu, first minister of Louis XIII —and especially in the reign of Louis XIV — A peculiarity of English absolutism the classical period being the reign of Elizabeth Tudor, — was the preservation of a parliament, the weakness of the bureaucratic apparatus on the local level, and the absence of a standing army.
In Spain, where in the 16th century incipient bourgeois relations were unable to develop, absolutism in fact degenerated into despotism. In fragmented Germany absolutism took shape not on an overall national scale but within the boundaries of separate principalities so-called princely absolutism.
In the second half of the 18th century the characteristic form of absolutism in a number of European countries was so-called enlightened absolutism.History of Europe. Jump to navigation Jump to search a British historian, suggests that environmental factors may have been in part to blame, especially global cooling.
Age of Absolutism across Germany and neighboring areas, and involved most of the major European powers except England and Russia. This fact was fully exploited by rulers of Spain, France, England, Russia, Austria etc.
to establish their absolute rule. Secondly, as a result of the Crusades the rulers and nobles of Europe came in contact with the East, where absolute monarchy was a common form of government. The decline of the Spanish empire was brought about by many factors.
Money was tight for the Spanish during the 17th century, despite that galleons filled with gold were sent from the Americas (though many were raided by pirates or were wrecked in storms).
They also befriended one of Spain's biggest enemies, England. In the end Spain was. History multiple choice. STUDY.
PLAY. b. the strategy of avoiding major confrontations. D) the destruction of the French cavalry at the Battle of Crecy. reestablished the traditional power of England's old nobility C) ended in when Richard III vanquished his opponents at the battle of Bosworth Field D) pitted the .
Indentify the factors that contributed to this rivalry, and assess the results for both countries over the period to Analyze the major factors responsible for the rise of anti-Semitism in nineteenthcentury Analyze the long-term and short-term factors responsible for the disintegration of communist rule in TWO of the following.
The rise of absolutism is brought about by a lack of structure in government and people are left in discord demise of absolutist nations seems to always be brought about by greed of the rulers, either to gain more power or acclimation from their subjects.