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But a steep price accompanied the fruits of total victory. In order to address this onerous liability, British officials turned to larger import duties on enumerated goods like sugar and tobacco, along with a series of high excise sales taxes on goods such as salt, beer, and spirits.
This taxation strategy tended to burden consumers disproportionately. In addition, government bureaucracy expanded in order to collect the needed revenue.
As the number of royal officials more than doubled, Parliament delegated new legal and administrative authority to them. Thus, even as British subjects lauded their preeminent position in the world, they chafed under the weight of increased debts and tightened government controls.
But the war exposed the weakness of British administrative control in the colonies on various fronts. The subsequent efforts on the part of royal officials to rectify these deficiencies and collect unprecedented amounts of revenue violated what many American colonists understood as the clear precedent of more than a century of colonial-imperial relations.
New world institutions of self-government and trade, having matured in an age of salutary neglect, would resist and ultimately rebel against perceived British encroachment.
Taxation policy became a central point of contention, because it tended to threaten both the prosperity and autonomy of colonial society. Rampant inflation ensued, and British merchants refused to accepted depreciated currency. The balance of trade between England and the colonies tilted decisively in favor of the former as a direct consequence of the French and Indian War.
Military spending and a general increase in the demand for goods and services contributed to significant increases in colonial wealth and prices. Colonial agricultural exports rose especially rapidly in the s and s. Colonists used the windfall to consume British manufactured goods at an ever increasing rate, supplementing a trend that been on the rise since the mids.
Even with the boom in agricultural exports, colonists consumed more than they exported.
British merchants, in the throes of the Industrial Revolution, responded by extending credit to their American customers. Accordingly, extended consumer debt became a common phenomenon in the colonies.
Parliament passed the Revenue Act of in an attempt to halt bribery as routinely practiced by colonists circumventing the Molasses Act. To do so, the Revenue Act dispensed with absentee customs officials who, rather than collecting duties on site, resided in England and relied on deputies susceptible to corruption.
The measure was part of a larger effort to block colonial trade with the French Sugar Islands, since many colonists were undeterred by the war and continued their lucrative trade with French possessions.
The British government also encouraged the Royal navy to apprehend and detain smugglers. Customs officials became more aggressive in using search warrants, called "writs of assistance" to track down smuggled goods. A young Boston attorney, James Otis, assailed such writs as contrary to the British constitution and beyond the Power of Parliament to administer.
They were convinced that the continued expansion of British trade and national influence depended on the reform of imperial administration and taxation in the North American colonies. Peace on the continent removed the stimulus of a war economy and brought about a recession in the colonies.
Debtors in both urban and agricultural sectors experienced the credit squeeze. The balance of trade continued to favor Britain, rendering colonial economies more and more dependent on British commercial ties and financial policy well into the s.The French and Indian War was the North American conflict in a larger imperial war between Great Britain and France known as the Seven Years’ War.
The French and Indian War began in and ended with the Treaty of Paris in The Seven Years’ War. The Seven Years’ War was a global military war between and , involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines.
Oct 23, · The most important event to occur in eighteenth-century North America, the Seven Years' War (or as the colonists called it, the French and Indian War) figures in most Americans' consciousness of the past as a kind of hazy backdrop to the regardbouddhiste.com: Resolved.
8 Factors that have Changed International Relations after World War II. The Second World War, a great change in the concept of sovereignty, nature of conflict among nations, concept of national interest, and means to achieving it has occurred. Jul 19, · The South China Sea seven years on 19 July Author: Michael McDevitt, CNA.
This month seven years ago at the Hanoi ASEAN Regional Forum, then secretary of state Hillary Clinton made a very public, and — for the Chinese — surprising, . Between and Georgia was unique among Britain's American colonies, as it was the only one to attempt to prohibit black slavery as a matter of public policy.