The volume was an instant and immense popular success and solidified Irving's reputation in Europe as an American literary artist, a sobriquet that many Europeans of the era had viewed as a contradiction. Based on European folktales, "Rip Van Winkle" and " Sleepy Hollow " present stories of men who find their lives transformed by supernatural forces. Both tales have became canonical works of children's literature, inspiring numerous illustrated editions as well as film, stage, and television adaptations.
It is therefore fitting that the convergent forces existing within a country of extremes should emanate from the "folk" themselves, promoting a national identity that continues to resonate throughout the globe.
American Folk Culture in the Nineteenth Century The term "folklore" was first coined in by an Englishman, William John Thoms, and was a phrase used to describe the study of the ancient system of customs and beliefs practiced by common people. Subsequently in other nations, folklore became a means of establishing a unified national culture that also included language, music, and literature.
To an extent these criteria applied to the United States in the nineteenth century as it began to forge an identity of its own. This is not to say that there was not already a burgeoning folkloric element rooted in Old World mythology such as the witch tales of New England and Appalachia. There were also existing aboriginal cultures predicated almost entirely on the oral tradition.
However, it was the Native Americans themselves who became objectified within the wider society while their culture remained firmly enclosed within the tribal environment.
By the mid-nineteenth century, it was increasingly clear that the divisions perceived to exist between folk culture and mass culture were beginning to be blurred. American folk characters of that time embodied the principles of individualism and liberty while perpetuating ideas of nationhood and anti-elitism.
All-American heroes such as Davy Crockett and Kit Carson were mythologized through almanacs, newspapers, and dime novels that anticipated the Superman comic boom a century later. As well as influencing the course of popular culture, folklore was, during the latter part of the nineteenth century, a topic that required intellectual pursuit.
As anthropologists, ethnologists, and historians attempted to situate an unwritten past through songs, myths, yarns, aphorisms, games, and numerous oral histories, folklore became very much a product of modernity.
By the time the American Folklore Society AFS was founded inthe United States had suffered a civil war and an economic slump; it had also undergone an accelerated industrial revolution that had seen its cities grow from cow towns and industrial ports to sprawling urban landscapes where immigrants and refugees from southern and eastern Europe brought their own folk traditions.
By the s, the AFS had branches in cities across the United States, eclipsing by far similar organizations in Europe. It would be easy to view such an institution as emblematic of a subliminal yearning for a simpler, preindustrial America idealized through the rose-tinted spectacles of a socially and economically privileged, predominantly eastern, professional class.
However, prominent folklorists of the late nineteenth century, for example T. Crane and Lee J. In this sense, it could be argued, folklore was intrinsic to the modernizing process as folk specialists set about researching isolated communities in order to promote the benefits of what came to be known as the Gilded Age.
African American Folklore Collectors and folklorists such as the first president of the AFS, Francis James Child, who compiled an extensive catalogue of British-based folk songs the final volume of which was published in ; Cecil Sharpe, an Englishman who made several trips to the Appalachians between and to document the "Elizabethan" ballads of Kentucky; and Vance Randolph, who initially visited the Ozarks of Arkansas during and discovered a powerful British influence within the local folk culture, provided a case for those who insisted there was no such thing as a quintessentially American folk heritage.
Thus, even in those environments relatively unaffected by mass culture and industrialization, extant folk traditions were unequivocally linked to Great Britainsuggesting a regional homogeneity that was untypical of America as a whole. In this context, how does one assess African American culture and its contribution to an identifiable American folklore?
The unavoidable fact that African Americans were denied, through slavery, the educational and economic advantages enjoyed by the majority of U.
Although informed by both African and European elements, in essence what emerged from the plantations of the South resembled conventional notions of folklore inasmuch that it was a mythology steeped in an oral tradition of trickster tales, animal stories, and work songs.
Fundamentally, whereas the rest of America had an already-established written tradition, most slaves were never allowed the opportunity to achieve any adequate level of literacy.
Of course there are exceptions, given the proliferation of written slave narratives, but such instances are relatively rare. In contrast to Native Americanswhose traditions and myths were never allowed to enter into the dominant realm, African Americans, partly because of language and Christian belief, possessed cultural traits that were instantly recognizable to whites.
Though distorted by sentimentalism, parody, and racist caricature, it was a fascination which allowed for a certain amount of cultural cross-fertilization. Beginning with the publication in of William F. Ware, and Lucy M.
In the Fisk Jubilee Singers were first assembled to perform Negro spirituals. The Fisks, who refined the spiritual to make it acceptable as a serious art form to white audiences, would subsequently travel to England, appearing before Queen Victoria.
His Songs and His Sayings, published inprovided a predominantly white readership with an amusing foray into the world of the plantation.
In writing the Uncle Remus stories, Harris incorporated the dialect of the Gullah islanders, an isolated community that resided off the coast of South Carolina. Believed to have retained many African oral inflections, the islanders were of some interest to folklorists.
Dubose Heyward, incidentally, was a white southerner who spent years observing the folk characteristics of the Gullah community in Charleston.
Although white novelists were initially responsible for illustrating the folkways of black America, it would be African American authors who would successfully combine the oral traditions surfacing from the nineteenth century with modernist literary forms.Wye Delta Transformer Wiring Diagram - regardbouddhiste.com Raven: Legends Saga, Book 2 Karen Krause I found I enjoyed having Karen back to voice this book as she did the first one.
The audio was clean in listening and went by quickly.
Ireland has Noah, her boyfriend, and Rip Van Winkle with her. Rip, who woke in the last book, makes me smile from time to time with his comments.
He's got a /5(76). Rip Van Winkle is an interesting folk tale that tells the story of a lazy man who minded his own business. Many have heard the tale before, but few have actually read it.
In my opinion the story is meant to be heard and not read. I think that is was written for the middle class, many of who. Rip van Winkle is an old but slight tale, and I doubt if it would have survived into the present time were it not that the simple notion of falling asleep and waking many years later to find everything has changed, exercises quite a potent pull on one's regardbouddhiste.coms: 7.
Rip van winkle symbolism essay on lord We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Find this Pin and more on Fairytale, Fable, and Folk Tale by Lyndsay Simpson. Lesson Plans: Cinderella | Speakaboos Worksheets We made tree maps about the stories and enjoyed reading, listening and learning.
Almost every country has a folklore society which collects, analyzes, and publishes folk material (e.g., in the United States the American Folklore Society publishes the Journal of American Folklore).