After reading this essay you will learn about: The dependence of colonial India on Britain for manufactured goods hindered the process of industrialization and obliterated the indigenous handicraft and cottage industries. As a part of the British strategy, India had to export more than its imports prior to World War II, so as to meet the unilateral transfer of payments to Britain by way of the salaries and pensions of the British officers, both military and civil, dividends on British capital invested in India, and interest on sterling loans.
Virtual water trade International Virtual Water Flows The concept of virtual, or embedded, water was first developed as a way of understanding how water scarce countries could provide food, clothing and other water intensive goods to their inhabitants.
The global trade in goods has allowed countries with limited water resources to rely on the water resources in other countries to meet the needs of their inhabitants. As food and other products are traded internationally, their water footprint follows them in the form of virtual water.
This allows us to link the water footprint of production to the water footprint of consumption, wherever they occur. Virtual water flows help us see how the water resources in one country are used to support consumption in another country.
See our FAQs page to clarify the difference between water footprint and virtual water. Why is this important? A country may aim to be self-sufficient by relying primarily on goods that can be produced within its borders.
Or a country may choose to reduce the burden on the natural resources within its borders by importing water intensive products.
A country may select energy security by using its natural resources to produce electricity in exchange for food security by importing food. The water footprint and its translation into virtual water can illuminate these choices and their inter-dependencies.
Coupling this with the water footprint enables us to map out the dependencies and to identify when and where risks may lie, in terms of scarcity and pollution. This has implications for food security, economy and diplomacy. For water-scarce countries it can sometimes be attractive to import virtual water through import of water-intensive productsthus relieving the pressure on the domestic water resources.
This happens, for example, in Mediterranean countries, the Middle East and Mexico. Northern European countries import a lot of water in virtual form more than they exportbut this is not driven by water scarcity. Instead it results from protection of their domestic water resources, land availability and land uses.
Virtual water imports into Europe. Countries can both import and export virtual water through their international trade relations.
Global map showing countries with net virtual water import related to import of agricultural and industrial products from Latin American countries green and countries with net virtual water export due to agricultural and industrial exports to Latin American countries red over the period Only the biggest gross virtual water flows over 10 billion cubic meters per year are shown.
Water Saving by Trade Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with relatively high water productivity i.
The total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products were produced domestically is 2 billion cubic meters per year.
These products are, however, being produced with only 2 billion cubic meters per year in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by billion cubic meters per year Mekonnen and Hoekstra, National policy makers in water-scarce countries are likely to be more interested in national water savings than in global water savings.
There are many examples of water-poor countries that save their domestic water resources by importing water-intensive goods.
Mexico, for example, imports maize and, in doing so, it saves 12 billion cubic meters per year of its national water resources.
This is the volume of water that it would need domestically if it had to produce the imported maize within the country. Facebook Twitter Mail National water footprint accounts: Sustainability, efficiency and equitability of water consumption and pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean Sustainability, 7 2:The decline in U.S.
imports from Brazil exceeded the decline in U.S. exports to Brazil, particularly in the energy-related products and minerals and metals sectors. The U.S. went from having $ billion deficit with Brazil in to having a $ billion surplus with Brazil in Brazil - officially the Federative Republic of Brazil – has transformed itself into a modern economy during the last 20 years and is becoming more open to overseas trade and investment following a broad-based recession from to , coupled with a political corruption scandal.
Proper export import pricing, complete and accurate quotations, and choice of terms of sale and payment are four critical elements in selling a product or service internationally.
Of the four, export import pricing is the most problematic, even for the experienced exporter. Import and export businesses are everywhere, sometimes dealing as wholesale distributors, sometimes as independent buyers and retailers, buying goods in one country and selling them in another.
Here is a collection of resources, products and services to help you develop your new business importing and exporting products. Exports and imports of products by stages of processing in are below along with their corresponding Product Share as percent of total export or import Brazil Raw materials exports were worth US$ 73, million, product share of %.
The U.S. Commercial Service in China offers valuable assistance to American businesses exporting goods and services to China.
Our office is part of a global network of trade specialists dedicated to assisting U.S. commercial interests worldwide.