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These selected excerpts include the Abstract-Overview, along with the entirety of Chapter 1 IntroductionChapter 2 a literature review of health and optimal well-being among over three dozen prominent Western psychologistsand Chapter 5 Summary-Conclusions-Comments.
Many additional criteria, affirmed by the literature and survey respondents, were posited e. Discrepancies were sometimes found between what classic spiritual literature affirms as criteria and what some modern representatives maintain.
Survey respondents indicate three especially important History dissertation conclusions for spiritual realization: What is optimal well-being? To put this question in only slightly different terms: What is the highest stage of human development?
This dissertation examines the hypothesis: It is to be noted that this author is specifically interested in examining optimal well-being in terms of spiritual realization awakening, liberation, enlightenment, and so forth. However, it is readily seen that humans ostensibly very healthy on the biological level can still live in a state of great dissatisfaction, even misery, such as when psychologically ridden by frustration, depression, resentment, boredom, jealousy, and so forth.
But the history of psychology shows that it mainly arose more as an expedient to remedy the existence of various types of disturbing mental disorder, rather than as an exploration of the farther higher reaches of human well-being.
Of course, some of these psychologists have gone deeper than others into the subject. In contrast to the behaviorists and mainstream psychoanalysts, these researchers encouraged a study of true well-being and, in a rudimentary fashion, began to probe some of its possible features.
Their research see next chapter for a review of some of this literature often touched on or even delved deeply into such spiritual traditions as Zen Buddhism, Hindu Vedanta, and Christian mysticism so as to enrich their views. Unfortunately, there was no official support for, or seeming great interest in, this work in the mainstream of psychology.
Psychologists were still mainly interested in the dynamics of pathology, not extraordinary health, and the two main paradigms in psychology for studying pathology were psychoanalysis and behaviorism.
With this so-called "third force" in psychology, there could now be an official focus on dynamics of health in addition to the focus on the dynamics of pathology. This ushered in the human potential movement and the concern for self-actualization.
But within less than a decade, even the paradigm of humanistic psychology was obsolete for studies in extreme well-being.
Their definitions of maturity and health reach no further than psychosocial identity, object constancy, mutuality in object relations, and more adaptive, less conflicted rearrangements of impulse and defense.
Yet much of the agony of our time stems from a spiritual vacuum. Furthermore, transpersonal psychologists were now very open to practicing spiritual disciplines and dialoguing with teachers more or less representative of these spiritual traditions.
A number of articles by, or interviews with, various spiritual teachers themselves are to be found in the issues especially the earlier issues of the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. An encounter with spiritual traditions was noteworthy, since one reason psychology arose in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was due to the evident failure of the Western religious traditions to help Westerners handle their mental disorders.
The exoteric religious traditions still tend to be viewed suspiciously by psychologists even by many transpersonal psychologists as ineffective and impotent, if not actually psychologically harmful.
Groups with unilevel sensibilities confuse the attainment of authentic spiritual transcendence or realization with the attainment of mundane psychological, sensory or material conditions, such as financial success, interpersonal satisfaction, inducement of special inner sensations or moods, commitment to a certain set of beliefs They harbor the attitude that the value as well as the proof of spiritual transformation lies in predictable, observable consequences in the mundane sphere.
Our frame of reference for defining unilevel versus multilevel sensibilities is the collective teachings of the great mystical traditions Zen Buddhism, Christian mysticism and Taoism. Smith,; M. Smith,; Staal, ; Stace, a, b; Streng, ; Suzuki, ; Underhill, ; Von Hugel,; Watkin, ; Whiteman, ; Woods, ; Zaehner,; Zimmer, have been less concerned with optimal well-being or spiritual realization i.
For instance, in Christian literature, one does not find Jesus or the great Christian saints talking about abstruse theological or philosophical or methodological research issues.
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And it is this ideal that interested many of the aforementioned Humanistic psychologists and largely inspired the emergence of Transpersonal Psychology.Introduction and Conclusion.
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