Drinking Horn from the Hallstatt culture Brooches found in a grave of the Hallstatt culture The Hallstatt era is named after the city Hallstatt in Austriawhere the first artifacts were found. It lasted from about BC to about BC.
Contents[ edit ] Crosby begins by pointing out that the populations of what he calls the "Neo-Europes" of temperate zones are primarily composed of European descendants.
He asks why there are such large concentrations of Europeans in these lands which are so distant from Europe. Furthermore, why have these locations been able to routinely produce large food surpluses and why are many of the countries located in these regions able to consistently be among the world's largest exporters of food?
According to Crosby, this mass emigration was caused by conditions within Europe at the time, such as "population explosion and a resulting shortage of cultivable land, national rivalries, persecution of minorities", alongside "the application of steam power to ocean and land travel".
Crosby's explanation for the success of European imperialists is biogeographical. Europe and the Neo-Europes all share similar latitudes.
That is, Europe and the Neo-Europes "are all completely or at least two-thirds in the temperate zonesnorth and south, which is to say that they have roughly similar climates ".
Therefore, just as farming was able to spread from the Fertile Crescenteast and west, without much difficulty, replacing the hunter-gatherer lifestyle along the way, so was it able to in the Neo-Europes.
This would ultimately result in the complete devastation of the native floras and faunas. One of the major contributors to European domination was diseasewhich is a natural byproduct of human interaction with animals.
Some such carriers of diseases were the mice, rats, roaches, houseflies, and worms that were able to accumulate in these urban settings. Each epidemic would spare some individuals who were biologically more capable of resisting the virus.
After undergoing this process for a number of centuries, the entire population eventually acquired at least some minor immunological defense against diseases such as measles and smallpox. Therefore, "When the isolation of the New World was broken He was not a figure with bulging muscles, nor necessarily with bulging forehead.
He knew how to raise surpluses of food and fiber; he knew how to tame and exploit several species of animals; he knew how to use the wheel to spin out a thread or make a pot or move cumbersome weights; his fields were plagued with thistles and his granaries with rodents; he had sinuses that throbbed in wet weather, a recurring problem with dysenteryand enervating burden of worms, an impressive assortment of genetic and acquired adaptations to diseases anciently endemic to Old World civilizations, and an immune system of such experience and sophistication as to make him the template for all the humans who would be tempted or obliged to follow the path he pioneered some 8, to 10, years ago.ecological imperialism Quick Reference A theory conceived by Alfred Crosby in his book Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, –, which proposes that colonization was not only a form of cultural and political tyranny, it was also a form of environmental terrorism.
Now in a new edition with a new preface, Crosby revisits his classic work and again evaluates the ecological reasons for European expansion. Alfred W. Crosby is the author of the widely popular and ground-breaking books,The Measure of Reality (Cambridge, ), and America's Forgotten Pandemic (Cambridge, ).4/5(6).
Ecological Imperialism is a theory first coined by Alfred Crosby (check out his book- Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, ).
As you probably know 'imperialism' is a policy of extending a countries power/influen. Alfred W. Crosby. Cambridge/ New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN: Since its initial publication in Ecological Imperialism has lost little of its original appeal and complexity regarding biological expansion.
American Imperialism - Imperialism, defined by Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary, is "the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisition or by gaining indirect control over the political or .
Mar 07, · Ecological Imperialism is a theory first coined by Alfred Crosby (check out his book- Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, ).
As you probably know 'imperialism' is a policy of extending a countries power/influence through .