Posted on February 26, by curryja Comments by Javier Summary:
Carter, Louisiana State University F. Uncertainties about future socioeconomic conditions as well as future climate changes can make it difficult to arrive at adaptation decisions now. However, the pace and magnitude of projected change emphasize the need to be prepared for a wide range and intensity of climate impacts in the future.
Planning and managing based on the climate of the last century means that tolerances of some infrastructure and species will be exceeded. Adaptation considerations include local, state, regional, national, and international issues.
For example, the implications of international arrangements need to be considered in the context of managing the Great Lakes, the Columbia River, and the Colorado River to deal with drought. Such a mix of approaches will require cross-boundary coordination at multiple levels as operational agencies integrate adaptation planning into their programs.
Adaptation actions can be implemented reactively, after changes in climate occur, or proactively, to prepare for projected changes. This chapter highlights efforts at the federal, regional, state, tribal, and local levels, as well as initiatives in the corporate and non-governmental sectors to build adaptive capacity and resilience in response to climate change.
While societal adaptation to climate variability is as old as civilization itself, the focus of this chapter is on preparing for unprecedented human-induced climate change through adaptation.
A map of illustrative adaptation activities and four detailed case examples that highlight ongoing adaptation activity across the U.
Coordinates. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At million square miles ( million km 2), the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area and slightly smaller than the entire. A "general statement" "intended to develop a unified conceptual scheme for theory and research in the social sciences" was published by nine USA social scientists in Theory was to be based on a "theory of action" in which "the point of reference of all terms is the action of an individual actor or collective of actors". The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of is as old as civilization itself, the focus of this chapter is on preparing for unprecedented human-induced climate change through adaptation. A map of illustrative adaptation activities and four detailed case examples that highlight ongoing adaptation activity across the U.S.
Adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment that exploits beneficial opportunities or moderates negative effects.
The potential of a system to adjust to climate change including climate variability and extremes to moderate potential damages, take advantage of opportunities, and cope with the consequences.
Technological change and substitutions that reduce resource inputs and emissions per unit of output. Although several social, economic, and technological actions would reduce emissions, with respect to climate change, mitigation means implementing actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed and stored by natural and man-made carbon sinks see Ch.
Stress that originates from different sources that affect natural, managed, and socioeconomic systems and can cause impacts that are compounded and sometimes unexpected.
An example would be when economic or market stress combines with drought to negatively impact farmers.
A capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from significant multi-hazard threats with minimum damage to social well-being, the economy, and the environment. A combination of the magnitude of the potential consequence s of climate change impact s and the likelihood that the consequence s will occur.
The degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes.
Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity. Copy link to clipboard Key Message 1 Substantial adaptation planning is occurring in the public and private sectors and at all levels of government; however, few measures have been implemented and those that have appear to be incremental changes.
An in-person meeting was held in Washington, D. Meeting discussions were followed by expert deliberation of draft key messages by the authors and targeted consultation with additional experts by the lead author of each key message.
Consensus was reached on all key messages and supporting text. Description of evidence base The key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the peer-reviewed literature as well as the more than technical inputs received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input.
Numerous peer-reviewed publications indicate that a growing number of sectors, governments at all scales, and private and non-governmental actors are starting to undertake adaptation activity. Description of evidence base The key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the peer reviewed literature as well as the more than technical inputs received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input.
A significant quantity of reviewed literature profiles barriers or constraints that are impeding the advancement of adaptation activity across sectors, scales, and regions. Moreover, additional citations are used in the text of the chapter to substantiate this key message.
Sharing best practices, learning by doing, and iterative and collaborative processes including stakeholder involvement, can help support progress. Literature submitted for this assessment, as well as additional literature reviewed by the author team, fully supports the concept that adaptations will ultimately need to be selected for their local applicability based on impacts, timing, political structure, finances, and other criteria.
The selection of locally and context-appropriate adaptations is enhanced by iterative and collaborative processes in which stakeholders directly engage with decision-makers and information providers. Additional citations are used in the text of the chapter to substantiate this key message.
Adaptation to multiple stresses requires assessment of the composite threats as well as tradeoffs amongst costs, benefits, and risks of available options. Climate change is only one of a multitude of stresses affecting social, environmental, and economic systems.
Activity to date and literature profiling those activities support the need for climate adaptation activity to integrate the concerns of multiple stresses in decision-making and planning. Numerous peer-reviewed publications indicate that no comprehensive adaptation evaluation metrics exist, meaning that no substantial body of literature or guidance materials exist on how to thoroughly evaluate the success of adaptation activities.
A challenge of creating adaptation evaluation metrics is the growing interest in mainstreaming; this means that separating out adaptation activities from other activities could prove difficult.Considerations for restoring temperate forests of tomorrow: forest restoration, assisted migration, and bioengineering..
This paper by Dumroese et al. sorts through the plethora of terms in conservation biology, forestry, and restoration ecology that refer to new management tools for climate adaptation.
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To view all courses (opens new window) AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY G – 3 Units Course Outline (opens new window) Introduction to Automotive Technology This course is designed to teach the student about the operation and maintenance of modern automobiles. A "general statement" "intended to develop a unified conceptual scheme for theory and research in the social sciences" was published by nine USA social scientists in Theory was to be based on a "theory of action" in which "the point of reference of all terms is the action of an individual actor or collective of actors".
Sep 20, · Vital Signs of the Planet: Global Climate Change and Global Warming. Current news and data streams about global warming and climate change from NASA. Travel through Earth's recent climate history and see how increasing carbon dioxide, global temperature and sea ice have changed over time.
The first step in planning your PBL curriculum is to align your goals of using PBL with the curriculum goals of your programme. As discussed earlier, this could take place at the mega, macro or micro level. In his Breakthrough essay, Steven Pinker spells out a key assumption of ecomodernism.
reader bricko shares an article from Scientific American about two "ecomodernists" who argue that the problems of climate change can be addressed through science and technology. A good base design around the specific climate/location needs could do.