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Key Ideas Giving the same written test to all students is neither fair nor accurate. When a single, inflexible medium is used for testing, students' skills with that medium become hopelessly confused with the skills we intend to measure. Testing separately from teaching and without the supports that students normally use provides an invalid perspective on what students know and can do.
Digital tools and media make it possible to design ongoing assessments that support individual differences in recognition, strategic, and affective networks, giving us a more accurate measure of students' achievement in relation to the learning goal.
Digital curricula with embedded assessment can track progress and provide ongoing feedback to help students improve performance while they are learning. Imagine that Patrick is taking a math test with his class. The test comes in two formats: One presents the problems on paper; the other presents the problems on a computer screen and gives test-takers the option of hearing the words read aloud through text-to-speech.
According to recent research Tzuriel,a student like Patrick, who has difficulty reading and writing, would almost certainly achieve a higher score on the second version than he would on the first.
Other students also might benefit from the computer-based format by virtue of the reading supports it offers, their own preference for working with computers, or other factors. Which version of the test yields the more accurate score? Which provides Patrick's teacher, Mr.
Hernandez, with more helpful information? These are questions we seek to answer as we explore how Universal Design for Learning can improve assessment. Barriers to Accurate Assessment Teachers evaluate student performance for many reasons: This last type of information is indispensable.
Externally, it is used as a criterion for school and college admission. Internally, it helps teachers evaluate the effectiveness of our instruction, so that we can make adjustments necessary to keep students on track.
To be truly useful, assessments must evaluate the knowledge and skills relevant to students' goals—and they must do so accurately. This is more difficult to achieve than it seems, especially when the same test is administered to the entire class.
Although using the same assessment tools and procedures for all learners might seem to be a fair and equal approach, in reality, this approach yields inaccurate results for many students.
Any test that relies on a single medium inevitably, albeit unintentionally, evaluates talents that may not be relevant to instructional goals—talents that are bound up in the medium or methods being used. Thus, students' ability or inability to work with particular media and methods may confound evaluation of their knowledge and skills.
To understand confounding factors in measurement, consider a friendly neighborhood butcher, Al, and his scale. Smith, one of Al's favorite customers, stops by the butcher shop to purchase some lamb chops. Al neatly trims the fat, places her four chops on his precisely calibrated scale, records the weight, and rings up the price.
Fifteen minutes later, another customer appears. Al rolls his eyes. Nyles, who always complains and never appreciates Al's fine meats. Al uses the same accurate scale to weigh the chicken Mr. This example illustrates how extraneous factors—a plastic container and a thumb—can corrupt a measurement.
Although no one intentionally builds inaccuracies into academic assessments as Al did with his scalethese inaccuracies do occur. The precision and accuracy of an assessment tool is reliable only to the extent that extraneous factors are removed from the equation. In our view, the traditional model of academic assessment is flawed in four important ways: Student characteristics—individual learning differences—can confound results.
Media characteristics can confound results. Withholding student supports can confound results. Poor integration with curriculum limits the value of assessment data.
Let's examine each of these factors, paying close attention to how the three brain networks and their interactions with different kinds of media can help us understand the barriers to and solutions for more accurate and valuable assessment.
Individual Learning Differences Most current assessments are not designed to accommodate individual differences. In some situations, and for some purposes, standardized administration is indeed appropriate, particularly if the format and circumstance of the test exactly match the requirements of a future task.
For example, if NASA wants to evaluate aspiring astronauts' ability to react in an emergency, each astronaut under consideration should be presented with the same simulated emergency. In this test, those who can react quickly and perform all of the necessary tasks will truly be the most qualified.
As a counter-example, imagine that you are teaching a middle school science class and are about to administer the textbook-based, multiple-choice test provided in the teacher's edition.
You're hoping to find out what each of your students has learned about science over the course of the instructional unit—and by extension, how effective your teaching has been.During the first year, teaching in English and mathematics is in ability-based sets.
For other subjects teaching is in mixed-ability forms. In the second year teaching in English, Latin, mathematics and science is in ability-based sets. EVOLUTION TRENDS The "INFORMATION AGE" & its Evolution into the "Holographic Age" Challenges & Realistic Goals For Survival & Creating A Desirable Future.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Over the course of the previous 30 years assessment has been a major focus of educational discussion and research. It is generally accepted that assessment is a vital part of a teacher’s role which needs to be carefully considered.
Transactional distance theory was developed in the s by Dr. Michael G. Moore, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Education at the Pennsylvania State University (Moore, ). It is the first pedagogical theory specifically derived from analysis of teaching and learning conducted through technology as opposed to the many theories developed in the classroom.
HAD - Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Sciences. Defines basic clinical laboratory sciences terminology and application. Introduces the specialties within the clinical laboratory sciences profession including microbiology, hematology, chemistry, immunohematology, and immunology and their roles in .
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