Hydraulic fracturing proppants and List of additives for hydraulic fracturing The main purposes of fracturing fluid are to extend fractures, add lubrication, change gel strength, and to carry proppant into the formation. High-viscosity fracturing tends to cause large dominant fractures, while high-rate slickwater fracturing causes small spread-out micro-fractures. Types of proppant include silica sandresin-coated sand, bauxiteand man-made ceramics.
Half of the world's wetlands were lost last century. Logging and conversion have shrunk the world's forests by as much as half. Some 9 percent of the world's tree species are at risk of extinction; tropical deforestation may exceedsquare kilometers per year.
Fishing fleets are 40 percent larger than the ocean can sustain. Nearly 70 percent of the world's major marine fish stocks are overfished or are being fished at their biological limit.
Soil degradation has affected two-thirds of the world's agricultural lands in the last 50 years. Some 30 percent of the world's original forests have been converted to agriculture. Sincethe global economy has tripled in size and population has grown by 30 percent to 6 billion people.
Dams, diversions or canals fragment almost 60 percent of the world's largest rivers. Twenty percent of the world's freshwater fish are extinct, threatened or endangered.
People and Ecosystems, the Fraying Web of Life United Nations Development Programme A pioneering analysis of the world's ecosystems reveals a widespread decline in the condition of the world's ecosystems due to increasing resource demands.
The analsysis, by the World Resources Institute WRI warns that if the decline continues it could have devastating implications for human development and the welfare of all species.
The analysis examined coastal, forest, grassland, and freshwater and agricultural ecosystems. The health of the each ecosystem was measured, as based on its ability to produce the goods and services that the world currently relies on.
The analysis shows that there are considerable signs that the capacity of Earth's ecosystems to produce many of the goods and services we depend on is rapidly declining. To make matters worse, as our ecosystems decline, we are also racing against time since scientists lack baseline knowledge needed to properly determine the conditions of such systems.
New Analysis of World's Ecosystems Reveals Widespread Decline ENN Will our great- grandchildren inherit a desiccated husk of a once shimmering planet, and curse us for a legacy of droughts, plagues,storms and hardscrabble moonscapes?
The four-fold increase in humans and the advent of the consumer society - have made the end of the millennium a cusp of history.
Affluent consumers in Hong Kong want exotic fish and presto! Poachers in the Philippines destroy vital reefs to meet that demand.
Millions of workers in China and Russia are plagued with pollution-related ailments. We need your help to ask President Barack Obama and the Environmental Protection Agency to get working on a bold plan to curb ocean acidification.
Carbon dioxide pollution is also being absorbed by the ocean, causing its chemistry to change and become more acidic.
This spells trouble for marine animals that are now having difficulty building shells, growing and sometimes even surviving in increasingly corrosive waters.
Damian Carrington Seafood is the critical source of protein for more than 2. Official catch data from FAO rarely includes small-scale, sport or illegal fishing and does not count fish discarded at sea. A more exhaustive study, taking over a decade shows that the annual catches between and were much bigger than thought, but that the decline after the peak year of was much faster than official figures.
The new research estimates the peak catch was million tons, but declined at 1. Prof Daniel Pauly, at the University of British Columbia in Canada and who led the work, said the decline is very strong and "is due to countries having fished too much and having exhausted one fishery after another.
While the results necessarily remain uncertain, they undoubtedly represent our most complete picture yet of the global state of fish catches. But afterfew undiscovered fisheries were left and catches started to decline.
The decline since has largely been in fish caught by industrial fleets and to a lesser extent a cut in the number of unwanted fish discarded at sea. On resumption, catches were bigger than ever. We know how to fix this problem but whether we do it or not depends on conditions that are difficult.
Illegal and pirate fishing take place in many parts of the world.
We can also see, that in efforts to stem declines, we have been using more and more bycatch that was once thrown away. Jeremy Hance Seabirds have been around for sixty million years, and they are true survivalists: But now seabirds seabird abundance has dropped Edd Hammill with Utah State University and co-author of the paper, noted: It gives us an idea of the overall impact we're having.
Living on both the open ocean and the shoreline, they face overfishing, drowning in fishing lines or nets, plastic pollution, invasive species like rats in nesting areas, oil and gas development and toxic pollution moving up the food chain.The model presented in this video is designed to compare different options for the relation between banks and the public sector and different types of subsidies regarding their effects on social welfare.
The so-called Camp Fire in Northern California in many ways has become the worst wildfire the history of a state whose topography and climate have.
The Natural Environment Research Council, the UK's leading public funder of environmental science. 8 things to know about anti-aging research and why there’s ‘no doubt’ humans can live to Are we ready for the artificial womb?
USDA aims to . Results of a national survey of more than physicians suggest that their experiences with patients, family members and friends with breast cancer are linked with .
INTRODUCTION. In October , the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, which has Senate oversight responsibility for the Export Administration Act (EAA), held an inquiry into the U.S. export policy to Iraq prior to the Persian Gulf War.